www.thetruemuslim.com - Tawheed, literally speaking, has the meaning of making something just one. Syaikh Muhammad bin Shalih Al Utsaimin said that "this meaning isn’t right unless it’s followed by disclaimer which is disclaiming everything except that something as the only one, and then determine it" (Syarh Tsalatsatil Ushul, 39) . Then, when it comes to syar’I, tawheed refers to the act of making Allah as the only righteous one to worship (Syarh Tsalatsatil Ushul, 39). From that definition, it can be inferred that basically there are so many things which can be worshiped by men. It can be the angels, the prophets, holy people, and even the other creatures. But the one who has applied true tawheed will only worship Allah.
The Differentiation of Tawheed
Based on the assessment towards the theorems about tawheed, it can be concluded that there are three types of tawheed namely: Tawheed Rububiyah, Tawheed Uluhiyah, and Tawheed Al Asma Was Shifat.
1. Tawheed Rububiyah
Starting with tawheed Rububiyah, it’s the act of considering Allah as the only one responsible for the occurrences which can only happen because of Allah. And at the same time, strictly stating that Allah subhanahu wata’ala is the Rabb, king and the sole creator of all creatures. And Allah is also the only one who determines and changes the condition of the creatures (Al Jadid Syarh Kitab Tawheeid, 17). Believing in terms of tawheed Rububiyah means that someone believes that it’s within the power of Allah in creating and managing the whole universe. For instance, someone believes that earth, sky, and everything between were created by Allah. And Allah is the one to give the blessing as well as catastrophe. Allah is the one to move the stars, and so many other things. It’s like what’s been stated inside of Al Qur’an,
الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَجَعَلَ الظُّلُمَاتِ وَالنُّورَ
“Praise be to God, Who created the heavens and the earth, and made the darkness and the light. Yet those who disbelieve ascribe equals to their Lord” (Al An’am: 1).
2. Tawheed Uluhiyah
Tawheed Uluhiyah is to apply the act of tawheed towards Allah in every kind of ibadah whether it’s done physically or mentally. It’s like what’s been written in Al Qur’an,
إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ
“It is You we worship, and upon You we call for help.” (Al Fatihah: 5).
As for the meaning of ibadah itself is everything done by the servants which is loved by Allah that can be in the form of utterances or acts. Of course, those “everything” should relate to the things commanded by Allah to be done and avoid the things forbidden by Allah.
Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta'ala said that,
وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَسُولًا أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ
3. Tawheed Al Asma Was Shifat
For this kind of tawheed, it refers to the act of tawheed-ing Allah subhanahu wata’ala by means of settling His names and characters. Of course, that act of settling the names and characters is in the same line like what’s been guided in Al Qur’an and Hadits. In Al Qur’an,
Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta'ala said,
وَلِلَّهِ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَى فَادْعُوهُ بِهَا
“To God belong the Most Beautiful Names, so call Him by them, and disregard those who blaspheme His names. They will be repaid for what they used to do.” (Al A-raf: 180).