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Comprehending The Two Sentence of Syahadat (Shahada) - This hadith is the second hadith of the Arbain An-Nawawiyyah hadith book by Imam Nawawi that tell us about the basic problem of Islam. What to be learnt this time is the two sentence of shahada.

From Umar bin Khatab radhiyallahu ‘anhu, he said,

بَيْنَمَا نَحْنُ جُلُوْسٌ عِنْدَ رَسُوْلِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ ذَاتَ يَوْمٍ إِذْ طَلَعَ عَلَيْنَا رَجُلٌ شَدِيْدُ بَيَاضِ الثِّيَابِ شَدِيْدُ سَوَادِ الشَّعْرِ لاَ يُرَى عَلَيْهِ أَثَرُ السَّفَرِ وَلاَ يَعْرِفُهُ مِنَّا أَحَدٌ ، حَتَّى جَلَسَ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَأَسْنَدَ رُكْبَتَيْهِ إِلَى رُكْبَتَيْهِ وَوَضَعَ كَفَّيْهِ عَلَى فَخِذَيْهِ

"One day, when we were in a council with Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, a man in a very white dress suddenly came before us, he had a black hair. There was no sign shown that he had just come from a long journey, and no one of us knew him. Then he sit in front of Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, he leaned his knee on Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam’s knee and put his hand on His thigh"

وَقاَلَ : يَا مُحَمَّدُ أَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ الإِسْلاَمِ ؟ فَقَالَ رَسُوْلُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : الإِسْلَامُ أَنْ تَشْهَدَ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُوْلُ اللهِ ، وَتُقِيْمَ الصَّلاَةَ ، وَتُؤْتِيَ الزَّكَاةَ ، وَتَصُوْمَ رَمَضَانَ ، وَتَحُجَّ البَيْتَ إِنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيْلاً

After that he said, “O muhammad, tell me about Islam.” Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam answered, “Islam is you bear witness that there is no God except Allah and indeed Muhammad is the messenger of Allah, you do prayers, pay zakat, do fast in the month of Ramadhan, and do the hajj to Baitullah if you are able o do it.” (Hadith Muslim no. 8 ). This hadith still continue.

The first part of the lesson from Hadith

1. This hadith shows us how noble is the character of Rasulullah because he still willing to join his friends. This character shows tawadhu’ (modesty) of The Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. A person who is tawadhu’ will become more noble.

From Abu Hurairah radhiyallahu ‘anhu, he said that Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said,

مَا نَقَصَتْ صَدَقَةٌ مِنْ مَالٍ وَمَا زَادَ اللَّهُ عَبْدًا بِعَفْوٍ إِلاَّ عِزًّا وَمَا تَوَاضَعَ أَحَدٌ لِلَّهِ إِلاَّ رَفَعَهُ اللَّهُ

“Charity will not cut wealth. Except that Allah will increase his honor, no one would have a forgiving character in him. And no one would have a tawadhu’ (modesty) for the sake of Allah except that Allah will raise his status.” (hadith Muslim, 2588)

2. The one who came was malaikat in the form of human. Malaikat can transform into human as the will of Allah.

3. The one who came was in a white dress. That is why there is a suggestion to wear a white dress.

The Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said,

الْبَسُوا مِنْ ثِيَابِكُمُ الْبَيَاضَ فَإِنَّهَا خَيْرُ ثِيَابِكُمْ وَكَفِّنُوا فِيهَا مَوْتَاكُمْ

“Wear a white dress because that is the best of your garments and shrooud our dead in that too.” (hadith Abu Dawood 4061, Ibn Majah 3566 and An-Nasai 5325. Al-Hafidz Abu Thahir said that this hadith is hasan).

As mentioned in Hasyiyah As Sindi, “Because if there is a dirt in a white dress it will be obviously seen and it will not in oother dress with other colour. And so in the washing will be given more caring than the other dress. Therefore, Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam mentioned a white dress as a cleaner and better dress.”

4. The one who came was still young because it was mentioned tht he had black hair.

What if he had gray hair?

The Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam commands,

غَيِّرُوا هَذَا بِشَيْءٍ وَاجْتَنِبُوا السَّوَادَ

“Change this white hair with something, but avoid black.” (hadith Musllim 2102).

The great scholars of Syafi’iyah, Imam Nawawi gave a title on the hadith above “A suggestion to dye the white hair with shofroh (yellow), hamroh (red) and it is forbidden to use black.”

5. The safar journey in the past will leave a trace on hair and clothes, moreover the white clothes will become very dusty. However there was no any trace on the man.

6. He sit close to The Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, his knee leaned on the knee of The Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, and his hands are on his knee. It shows us that in learning something we should sit close to the teacher who give us the knowledge.

7. It is okay for a student to sit near the teacher but do not make the teacher spend his time for nothing.

8. People in Badui usually call The Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam with his name ‘O Muhammad’. It is different with people around him who call him with the Prophecy name. It shows us that people of Arab Badui have less ethic and rule in calling people.

Imam Nawawi rahimahullah explains:

It is suggested for sons, students, or young men not to call a father, teacher, and master with just the name.

9. Islam bear witness laa ilaha illallah, muhammadarrasulullah. What is the meaning of shahada? Shahada means how we acknowledge  with verbal and heart.

10. Laa ilaha illallah means laa ilaha haqqun illallah, that is there is no God except Allah.

11. Why is laa ilaha illallah and Muhammad Rasulullah become one pillar, why not two? Because the consequence of the shahada laa ilaha illallah is to be sincere. The shahada Muhammad Rasulullah have to ittiba' or follow the guidance of the Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam. And the worship then legitimate and accepted if based on sincerity and ittiba'.

12. Saying shahada orally is not enough, the hearts should say it too because the fake people just say the shahada only orally and it does not have any meaning on them.

13. People who say shahada can be called as Islam, although maybe he just say it for a protection. You can take a lesson from this story of Usamah. Imam Nawawi rahimahullah take this hadith below in Riyadhus Sholihin in the chapter “Doing the law of human according to the lahiriyah. And they give their heart to Allah Ta’ala”.

Usamah bin Zaid radhiyallahu ‘anhu said, “Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam asked us to go Huraqah of the tribe of Juhainah, and we suddenly attacked them in the morning at their water place. Me and someone from Anshar people met a man from their group. After we got close with him, then he said laa ilaha illallah. A people of Anshar friend hold himself to kill him, while i stabbed him with my spear and make him killed.

After arrived in Madinah, this incident was heard by The prophet shallallhu ‘alaihi wa sallam. Then he asked me, “O Usamah, did you kill her after he said laa ilaha illallah?” I said, “O Rasulullah, actually that man was just looking for a self protection, but his heart did not belive it”. He asked  again, “Did you kill him after he said laa ilaha illallah?” Those words were repeated by The Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam until I expected that I have not become Muslim before that day.” (hadith Bukhari 4269 and Muslim 96)

It is mentioned in Hadith Muslim, then Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said, “Had not he said laa ilaha illallah , but why did you kill him?” I answered, “O Rasulullah, he said it just because he was afraid of weapon.” Then he asked, “ Why didn’t you split his heart to know that he said it because he was afraid or not?” He repeated those words until I wished that I become Muslim that day.”

When the hadith above was said, Imam Nawawi explained the meaning of the sentence “Why didn’t you split his heart to know that he said it because he was afraid or not?” is that we are burdened by looking at people from what people said and what we see. While the heart, it’s not our concern. We don’t have capability to judge people’s heart, just look at people from his words. Don’t ask the other. (Look Syarh Shahih Muslim, 2: 90-91)

14. Shahada of Muhammad Rasulullah contains some consequenses :

• Approving every word of The Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam without any doubt.

• Running every command from Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sllam without any denial.

• Leaving every what Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam forbid, without any confrontation.

• Not prioritize human’s words rather than the words of The Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam.

• Not making bid’ah that is not taught by Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, it can be related to beliefs, words, or acts. Therefore, the poeple who do bid’ah means that he does not do the shahada of Muhammad rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam correctly because he still add new thoughts, it also means that he has no respect to Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam.

• Not believing that The Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam has a capability of rububiyah (has capability like what Rabb does, those are creating, giving sustenance and granting wishes). The Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam is just an ‘abdu wa Rasul (the servant and the messenger of Allah). The Prophet Muhammad shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam is not a God that should be worshipped. However, Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam is the messenger of Allah that may not be harrassed.

• Honoring every word of The Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. For exaple we may not spread fake hadith and mock it with a certain purpose.

Syarh Al-Arba'in An-Nawawiyah. The third printing, Year 1425 H. Shaykh Muhammad ibn Salih al-'Uthaimin. Dar Ats-Tsaraya Publisher.

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